EASO COI Report. Actors of protection

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The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the structure, functions, and effectiveness of the justice and security sectors of the government of Iraq, in their role as state actors of protection. The primary focus of the report is on the state’s functioning in protecting and guaranteeing the protection of its citizens in the context of civilian security and justice. The central institutions that fulfil critical functions such as the Ministries of Interior and Defence, as well as the judiciary are examined in terms of capacity, mandate, effectiveness and integrity. Further institutions, such as the Iraqi High Commission for Human Rights are also examined. Given the distinct governance of Kurdistan, institutions in that region were also included as part of this report. Given the large-scale broad proliferation of state-aligned militias, non-aligned groups and other security actors in Iraq post-ISIL, this report is limited to an overview of the main actors of the state.

This report was co-drafted by the EASO COI sector with research contributions from the COI unit of the Romanian General Inspectorate for Immigration, Ministry of Internal Affairs.

Furthermore, the following national asylum and migration departments have contributed by reviewing this report together with EASO:

Estonia, Estonian Police and Border Guard Board

Slovakia, Migration Office, Department of Documentation and Foreign Cooperation.

Additionally, the following individual expert reviewed this report:

Dr. Geraldine Chatelard, Contemporary Historian and Social Anthropologist. Dr. Chatelard is an independent consultant and social scientist currently associated with the Iraq (Erbil) branch of the Institut français du Proche-Orient (French Institute in the Near East). For the past 15 years, she has conducted research and written on migration and displacement issues in the region, including the socioeconomic and humanitarian situation in Iraq. Since 2014, she spends on average one third of her time conducting field research in various regions of Iraq (Kurdistan, Baghdad, Najaf, Karbala, Basra and other southern governorates, and more recently Mosul) including on forced displacement, the return and reintegration of migrants and refugees, and the politics of religious identities.

The drafting of this report was finalised in November 2018.

This report was written according to the EASO COI Report Methodology.

Politique de traitement

En raison d’une augmentation des actes de violence et des actes terroristes, la situation en Irak s’est détériorée depuis le printemps 2013 en ce qui concerne la sécurité et les droits humains. L’offensive terrestre menée en Irak par l’EI depuis juin 2014 a produit une nouvelle escalade de la violence et plongé le pays dans un conflit armé interne meurtrier. Les parties en conflit visent également des civils pour des raisons ethniques, religieuses ou politiques.

Au cours de l’année 2015, la pression mise sur l’EI a été de plus en plus grande dans plusieurs régions d’Irak. Les troupes irakiennes, les milices chiites et les peshmergas kurdes ont réussi à chasser cette organisation des zones qu’elle avait conquises. En 2016, l’EI a poursuivi son repli et de grandes parties du territoire sous son contrôle ont été reprises par les troupes régulières. La reprise des zones occupées par l’EI a eu un impact manifeste sur les conditions de sécurité en Irak dans leur ensemble. La diminution des violences se poursuit en 2017.

Il ressort des informations disponibles que le niveau de la violence, l’impact de la violence terroriste et les conséquences de l’offensive de l’EI varient toujours fortement d’une région à l’autre. Cette variation importante caractérise également la situation en matière de sécurité et de droits humains en Irak.

Land: 
Irak
Nouvelle adresse CGRA