EASO COI Report. Security situation


The purpose of this security situation report is to provide relevant information for the assessment of international protection status determination, including refugee status and subsidiary protection, and in particular for use in updating EASO’s country guidance development on Syria.

This report is part of a series of Syria COI reports produced in 2021.

This report analyses the security situation in Syria, focusing in particular on the situation of the civilian population. The reference period is 2020 and the first three months of 2021. The report is an update of the EASO COI Report Syria – Security situation (May 2020).

The report is divided into two parts. The first part focuses on presenting an overview of the armed conflicts in Syria, current political developments and information on the main parties to the conflict. It goes on to describe the security trends in different parts of Syria during 2020 and first three months of 2021, with a focus on the nature of the violence and impact on civilians. The second part provides a governorate-level description of the security situation. Each governorate chapter includes a map, brief description of the governorate, background conflict dynamics and armed actors present in the area, recent security trends, including information on civilian fatalities, security incidents and trends, armed confrontations (etc.), displacement and return, and civilian infrastructure impacted.

This report was co-drafted by the European Asylum Support Office COI Sector and Finland, Finnish Immigration Service.

The following departments and organisations have reviewed the report:

- The Netherlands, Office for Country Information and Language Analysis, Ministry of Justice (OCILA)

- ACCORD, the Austrian Centre for Country of Origin and Asylum Research and Documentation (except Chapters 1, 2.1 and 2.10)

- ARC, the Asylum Research Centre (except Chapters 2.2 - 2.9 and 2.11 - 2.14)

The drafting of this report was finalised on 28 May 2021. Any event taking place after this date is not included in this report.

This report is produced in line with the EASO COI Report Methodology (2019) and the EASO COI Writing and Referencing Style Guide (2019).

Politique de traitement

Depuis 2011, la Syrie connaît un conflit armé interne meurtrier qui a déjà fait un grand nombre de victimes, de personnes déplacées et de réfugiés. Les parties en conflit n’épargnent pas la population civile. Aussi bien l’armée syrienne que l’opposition armée violent quotidiennement le droit international humanitaire et les droits de l’homme, avec une brutalité extrême. Des civils sont souvent visés pour des motifs ethniques ou religieux ou parce qu’ils sont perçus comme appartenant au camp politique adverse.

La guerre civile a des conséquences dévastatrices pour la population civile. On estime à 13,4 millions le nombre de Syriens nécessitant une aide humanitaire suite au conflit armé, ce qui représente une augmentation de 21% par rapport à 2020. Plus de 90% d'entre eux vivraient sous le seuil de pauvreté. 6,1 millions de Syriens sont déplacés à l’intérieur de la Syrie. En outre, 5,6 millions de personnes ont fui le pays.