EASO COI Report. Situation of returnees from abroad


The purpose of this report is to provide relevant information regarding the situation of returnees hailing from Syria within the framework of international protection status determination, including refugee status and subsidiary protection, and in particular for use in updating EASO’s country guidance development on Syria. The report is primarily focused on the return of Syrians from Europe and Syria’s neighbouring countries (Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan) to government-held Syria. This report is part of a series of Syria COI reports produced in 2021.

The first chapter presents an overview of the patterns of return and wherever possible, the numbers of returnees, both from the EU as well as Syria’s neighbouring countries harbouring the highest Syrian refugee populations, which are Turkey, Lebanon and Jordan. The second chapter discusses the consequences of having exited Syria illegally and having applied for asylum abroad. In addition, this chapter looks into the monitoring of the Syrian diaspora by the Syrian authorities. The third chapter analyses the procedure for Syrian returnees to obtain a security clearance in order to enter government-held Syria legally and how this procedure works in practice. The fourth chapter looks at potential obstacles towards return, divided into three categories: limited or no access to particular areas of return, a lack of civil documentation, and issues related to housing, land and property (HLP) rights. The fifth and final chapter looks into the treatment of returnees upon return by the Government of Syria (GoS).

The drafting of this report was finalised on 12 May 2021. Any event taking place after this date is not included in this report.  

This report was drafted by the Country of Origin Information (COI) Unit of the Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs.

The following departments and organisations have reviewed the report together with EASO:

- Denmark, Danish Immigration Service (DIS);

- Hungary, National Directorate-General for Aliens Policing Documentation Centre.

This report was written according to the EASO COI Report Methodology (June 2019).

Politique de traitement

Depuis 2011, la Syrie connaît un conflit armé interne meurtrier qui a déjà fait un grand nombre de victimes, de personnes déplacées et de réfugiés. Les parties en conflit n’épargnent pas la population civile. Aussi bien l’armée syrienne que l’opposition armée violent quotidiennement le droit international humanitaire et les droits de l’homme, avec une brutalité extrême. Des civils sont souvent visés pour des motifs ethniques ou religieux ou parce qu’ils sont perçus comme appartenant au camp politique adverse.

La guerre civile a des conséquences dévastatrices pour la population civile. On estime à 13,4 millions le nombre de Syriens nécessitant une aide humanitaire suite au conflit armé, ce qui représente une augmentation de 21% par rapport à 2020. Plus de 90% d'entre eux vivraient sous le seuil de pauvreté. 6,1 millions de Syriens sont déplacés à l’intérieur de la Syrie. En outre, 5,6 millions de personnes ont fui le pays.