This report provides information on the targeting and treatment of persons belonging to specific profiles in Iraq, as well as relevant context information in view of the assessment of international protection status determination for Iraqi asylum seekers, including refugee status and subsidiary protection and in particular for use in EUAA's country guidance development on Iraq (2022).
This report is an update of the EASO COI Report – Iraq: Targeting of Individuals, published in March 2019, as well as the two EASO COI reports, Treatment of Iraqis with perceived affiliation to ISIL and the Protest movement and treatment of protesters and activists, both published in October 2020. This report addresses topics related to the targeting of individuals by armed actors and sectors of society. It is written in conjunction with additional reports on Iraq on the topics of Key socio-economic indicators (Baghdad, Basrah and Sulaymaniyah), and Security situation (which will be published at a later stage).
The reference period for the different profiles varies depending on when they were last updated in an EASO COI report. Therefore, the reference period covering the time period between 1 August 2020 and 30 October 2021 was observed for the profiles (perceived) ISIL affiliates, Sunni Arabs, political opposition activists and protesters, religious and ethnic minorities and stateless persons. The reference period covering the time period between 1 January 2020 and 31 October 2021 was observed for the profiles: journalists, media workers and human rights activists, individuals perceived to transgress moral codes, women, persons involved in and affected by blood/land feuds, (perceived) collaborators with western forces, and atheists, converts and individuals considered to have committed apostasy.
The report comprises ten chapters, each covering one group of individuals who fall under one profile. The profiles tackled in this report are: (perceived) ISIL affiliates; Sunni Arabs, political opposition activists and protesters; religious and ethnic minorities, and stateless persons (Christians, Turkmen, Yazidis, and Palestinians); journalists, media workers and human rights activists; individuals perceived to transgress moral codes; women; persons involved in and affected by blood/land feuds in the context of tribal conflict; (perceived) collaborators with western forces; and atheists, converts and individuals considered to have committed apostasy.
EUAA would like to acknowledge the following national asylum department and external expert as co-drafters of this report, together with EUAA:
- Romania, International Protection Unit, Asylum and Integration Directorate of the General Inspectorate for Immigration;
- Ms. Stephanie Huber, Country of Origin Information (COI) expert.
The following departments and organisations have reviewed parts of the report:
- France, Office for the Protection of Refugees and Stateless Persons (OFPRA), Information, Documentation and Research Division;
- Norway, Landinfo – Norwegian Country of Origin Information Centre.
The drafting of this report was finalised on 30 November 2021. Some additional information was added during the finalisation of this report in response to feedback received during the quality control process which happened until 30 November 2021.
This report was written according to the EASO COI Report Methodology (2019).
Politique de traitement
Depuis 2013, la situation sécuritaire dans la région a été largement déterminée par la montée de l'État islamique en Irak et en Syrie (EI) et par la lutte contre celui-ci. Le 9 décembre 2017, le premier ministre alors en fonction, M. al-Abadi, a annoncé que la dernière partie de la zone occupée par l'EI en territoire irakien avait été reprise, mettant ainsi fin à la guerre terrestre contre l'organisation terroriste. La victoire sur l’EI et la reconquête des zones occupées par l’organisation ont manifestement eu un impact positif et tangible sur les conditions de sécurité en Irak. Toutefois, les cellules de l’EI restent actives dans plusieurs provinces et les forces de sécurité irakiennes, les milices chiites et les peshmergas kurdes mènent toujours des opérations contre l’organisation. Cela se traduit par un niveau de violences, une échelle de la violence aveugle et un impact du conflit sur la population qui varient fortement d’une région à l’autre. Par ailleurs, dans le cadre du conflit avec le PKK, l’armée turque procède à des attaques aériennes et mène des opérations terrestres contre des cibles liées au PKK dans les zones frontalières du nord de l’Irak.